Monday, 5 September 2016


As of August 2015 [update], there have been 100 amendments to the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950. There are two types of amendments to the constitution which are governed by article 368.

What is Article 368?

Article 368 (1) of the Constitution of India grants constituent power to make formal amendments and empowers Parliament to amend the Constitution by way of addition, variation or repeal of any provision according to the procedure laid down therein, which is different from the procedure for ordinary legislation

How many schedules are there in the Indian constitution

Now Constitution of India have 448 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments.
What is meant by directive principles of state policy?

These rights, defined in Part III of the Constitution, apply irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed or gender. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to specific restrictions. The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines for the framing of laws by the government.
What do you mean by fundamental duties?

 The fundamental duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. These duties set in part IV-A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the nation.
What is the difference between consolidated and contingency funds of India?
Consolidated Fund Of India is where the collected money is kept. Consider it as a Safe Box No.1. Whenever Government wants money for infrastructure, various schemes, building new schools& colleges it use the money from Consolidated Fund of India.

Sometimes an emergency can knock the door .Like the floods /At such a crucial time, when swift action is required and a quick decision is to be made. Then the Government take out the money from the Safe box No.2--> The Contingency Fund of India.


High  courts  have  the  power   to  determine   the  constitutional  validity  of  a  central  act
Article  226 in  the  constitution  of  India   1949


The 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1976) brought a number of changes in the Constitution. The Act inter-alia gave preponderance to the Directive Principles of State Policy over the Fundamental Rights. Established the supremacy of Parliament and curtailed the powers of Judiciary. The Act was first of its kind. Is was the most comprehensive Act and touched almost all the sensitive areas of the Constitution. The Amendment was meant to enhance enormously the strength of the Government.

What is preamble to the constitution

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among ...

What  is  meant  by  fraternity in Indian constitution       

Promotion of Fraternity among the people is the fourth objective is to promote Fraternity among all the people. Fraternity means the inculcation of a strong feeling of spiritual and psychological unity among the people. It is designed to secure dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the nation.  (spirit of brotherhood)

Article 21 of the Constitution of India, 1950 provides that, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.” 'Life' in Article 21 of the Constitution is not merely the physical act of breathing
Sovereignty in Indian constitution

In the 1995 case of Union Government Vs LIC of India also, the Supreme Court has once again held that Preamble is the integral part of the Constitution. As originally enacted the preamble described the state as a "sovereign democratic republic

Deprivation, Termination, and Renunciation  (INDIAN  CONSTITUTION)

Renunciation It is a voluntary act by which a person, after Requiring the citizenship of another country, gives up his Indian citizenship. This provision is subject to certain conditions.

 Termination Takes place by operation of law when an Indian citizen voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country. He automatically ceases to be an Indian citizen

Deprivation It is a compulsory termination of the citizenship of India obtained by registration or Naturalisation, by the Government of India, on charges of using fraudulent means to acquire citizenship.
What is parliamentarianism?

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from legislature (parliament) and is also held accountable to that legislature. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is normally a different person from the head of government.
Proclamation of President’s Rule in a State

The proclamation is issued by the state's Governor after obtaining the consent of the President of India. If it is not possible to revoke Governor's rule before within six months of imposition, President's Rule under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution is imposed.
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